Products that are, for example, suitable for inclusion in Product Service Systems, or for upgrading, reuse, refurbishing or remanufacturing may require different design strategies, user involvement processes, assembly and disassembly processes and marketing strategies compared to more traditional products. Using new technologies and ways of communication will be enables. The core research question here is: How can we design circular value propositions (products, services or Product Service System)?
To answer this question, we need to correlate to front-end design and incorporate end-of-life cycle input. To generate new design methodologies we need to use circular solution demonstrators and develop design rules such that application is beneficial from a sustainability perspective.